India is the second most affected with 77 million people diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic disease that is caused due to inadequate insulin production in the pancreas or when the insulin produced is not utilized by the body the right way.
Insulin is responsible for converting glucose into energy. When this glucose is not absorbed from the bloodstream, its levels shoot up leading to a condition called hyperglycemia which affects organs and tissues.
There are 3 main types of Diabetes:
Type 1: Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age but is mostly seen in adolescents and children. The body produces very little amounts of insulin. Hence, such patients need insulin supplements to regulate their glucose levels.
Type 2: Type 2 diabetes is common among adults. 90% of diabetes patients have type 2 conditions where the body is not able to make good use of the insulin produced. There are oral medications and insulin supplements to regulate glucose levels.
Gestational Diabetes: during pregnancy, women can have diabetes that disappears after they give birth. However, the mother and child are at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in their life.
Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented. But, the cornerstone for type 2 is lifestyle changes with elevated physical activities and a regulated diet. Small lifestyle changes in the early stages of life and dealing with complications like unhealthy eating habits and being overweight can prevent the risk of type 2 in the future.